The cleaning ability of belt conveyor sweeper plays an important role in improving the operation efficiency and reliability of belt conveyor, reducing equipment failure rate and reducing maintenance cost. Therefore, selecting a suitable cleaner can effectively improve the efficiency and service life of the belt conveyor.
Consequences of belt conveyor not being cleaned in time
The materials conveyed by the conveyor belt may have viscous substances, such as coal dust, mud and powdery materials. Some of them will stick to the working surface of the conveyor belt and cannot be completely unloaded during unloading. They will stick to the idler with the belt running, which will cause the following consequences for a long time:
① The material enters the shell of the idler, which increases the degree of bearing wear. Sticking the material to the shell of the idler will damage and roughen the surface glue of the conveyor belt and accelerate the damage of the conveyor belt.
② When the adhesive enters the tail wheel and steering drum, the material will stick to the drum surface, and the more it sticks, resulting in the deviation of the conveyor belt, aggravating the wear of the conveyor belt, resulting in adverse consequences.
③ If the material sticks to the driving drum and increases the friction to the drum, it will cause damage to the surface rubber of the conveyor belt and the rubber coating of the drum.
④ If the materials are not removed in time, a blanking area will be formed in the whole working channel, resulting in environmental pollution, increased cleaning labor, affecting the physical and mental health of employees and increasing the cost of the enterprise.
Therefore, in order to ensure the normal operation of the belt conveyor, the attachments on the conveyor belt must be cleaned.
Type, characteristics, scope of application and installation position of sweeper
There are many kinds of sweepers for belt conveyor. Common sweepers include heavy hammer sweeper, spring sweeper, alloy rubber sweeper, rotary brush sweeper, empty section sweeper, cleaning idler, hydraulic sweeper, PUR polyurethane belt sweeper, closed sweeper, hard alloy scraper sweeper, electric roller brush sweeper, electric vacuum sweeper ROTARY SWEEPER, etc. It is impossible to use all the cleaners on the conveyor. Here are several common cleaners.
1) Pur polyurethane belt cleaner
Pur polyurethane belt cleaner is installed at the driving drum of the belt conveyor. Its scraper is made of polyurethane composite material and integrated with a die. The scraper has flat surface, good straightness, low friction, high wear resistance and high strength. It has a fairly stable scraping effect and can effectively remove fine and wet sticky materials on the residual belt, The pre pressure regulator ensures the stable contact pressure between the scraper and the belt.
The scraper is generally available for 1 ~ 3 years and will never hurt the belt; The use of high polymer polyurethane and good comprehensive mechanical properties prolong the service life of the product; The design structure is compact, the preparation is reasonable, and the product is light, beautiful and easy to operate; The spare parts of the product are interchangeable and adjustable, which is more convenient for installation, commissioning, replacement and maintenance.
2) Carbide scraper cleaner
The alloy cleaner mainly cleans small particles and their media, and the transported materials can also be cleaned when the humidity is more than 5%. The carbide scraper sweeper is installed at the head of the belt conveyor. The scraper material is made of cemented carbide, which has two forms: single piece and double piece. The pressure of the scraper on the conveyor belt is changed by adjusting the counterweight to achieve the effect of completely cleaning the materials.
The utility model has the advantages of novel structure, unique buffer compensation device, good impact and oscillation resistance of the conveyor belt, good cleaning effect and not easy to damage the conveyor belt. It is also equipped with a high function standard component system, including supporting pipe, supporting pipe extension and elastic buffer device, adjusting mechanism to adjust the contact pressure between scraper and conveyor belt, and adjusting the metal scraps on both sides of the scraper to reduce the circular arc outwards, effectively preventing the scraper from damaging the surface of the belt with smooth PE cutter board. It can well prevent material accumulation and scaling.
3) Empty section cleaner
The empty section cleaner adopts rubber plate or wear-resistant lining plate as the cleaning plate, which can be made into "herringbone" or "/" shape, and is installed at the return branch of the conveyor belt, the upper side of the conveyor belt, near the tail drum or the direction changing drum of the vertical tensioning device. In order to compensate the wear of the cleaning plate, the spring is often used to automatically adjust the contact between the cleaning plate and the conveyor belt to ensure the cleaning quality.
4) Rotary roller brush cleaner
The rotary roller brush cleaner, as shown in Figure 4, is a new product. It has only been put into use in China in recent years. It can effectively clean the adhesion on the surface of the drum and the bottom of the conveyor belt. The cylindrical nylon brush is driven by the motor. The brush tip is slightly in contact with the belt surface. The rotation direction of the nylon brush is opposite to the running direction of the return conveyor belt, so as to brush the particulate material adhered to the belt surface, Achieve the purpose of thorough cleaning. It is widely used in coal conveying belt of power plant, chemical industry, sugar making, pharmacy, port and wharf and other industries.
The rotary roller brush cleaner is composed of motor, reducer, cleaning drum, coupling, bearing seat and adjusting frame. Its performance characteristics are as follows: ① integrated design, convenient installation and adjustment and strong applicability. ② The tape deviation will not be caused during cleaning. ③ Safe and reliable, long service life and low maintenance cost. ④ When the sweeper works, the cleaning points are in continuous contact, the cleaning is powerful and the cleaning effect is good. ⑤ Nylon brush is processed and made by special technology, without sticking and scaling. ⑥ No wear to the tape and prolong the service life of the tape.
5) Alloy rubber cleaner
The alloy rubber cleaner is installed at the head drum. It mainly relies on the elastic force of the rubber rod. At the same time, the scraper material is changed from rubber to cemented carbide. After the material is separated from the conveyor belt, it is close to the surface of the conveyor belt to clean the materials bonded to the conveyor belt.
The golden rubber cleaner is mainly composed of a plurality of alloy scrapers, scraper frames, rubber elastomers, cross beams, adjustable fixed frames, etc. its structure is simple and compact. The normal contact between the scraper and the driving drum can be adjusted by adjusting the fixed frame, and then rotate the cross beam shaft to make the contact pressure between the scraper and the driving drum reach 100 ~ 150n, and then lock the bolt.
The materials cleaned by the alloy rubber cleaner will directly fall into the cone bucket at the head of the continuous conveyor and be transported together with other materials. There is no problem of material accumulation and material spilling on the return belt.
In order to achieve better cleaning effect, the more mature experience is to increase the number of sweepers at the head drum for joint use. For example, alloy rubber sweeper P and H are used together. Add a hard alloy scraper cleaner; When the return conveyor belt enters the lower idler, the lower idler adopts comb idler, spiral idler or V-shaped comb idler, which can achieve better cleaning effect.
3. Main problems and selection principles of sweeper
During the installation and use of the cleaner, some problems are often encountered, such as the effect of the cleaner is not ideal, the unreasonable design leads to the rapid wear of the cleaning cutter head, the installation is not in place, resulting in potential safety hazards, etc.
The sweeper installed in some areas will also cause many safety accidents. In some places, 7 ~ 8 sweepers are installed at one cleaning point, but the actual cleaning effect is poor. After the sweeper is installed in some areas, the belt joint cracks, resulting in the tearing of the overall belt.
These problems are mainly caused by the following factors: ① wrong selection of sweeper. ② The broom is installed in the wrong position. ③ The cutter head of the cleaner is not wear-resistant.
Principles for selecting sweeper: ① installation position and chute structure. ② The position of conveyor belt and conveyor frame and the position of pressure roller. ③ Belt speed, surface condition and quality of conveyor belt. ④ Joint type and whether it is a two-way running conveyor belt. ⑤ Type and characteristics, water content, particle size and viscosity of transported materials.
Sweeper is an important part of belt conveyor. Its working effect directly affects the working performance, state and service life of belt conveyor. Selecting a group of suitable sweepers will not only make the belt conveyor work stably and reliably, but also prolong the service life of the belt conveyor.